Colonel Gilbert Kennedy of Ardmillan
By Iain Kennedy Copyright © 2007Latest update November 22nd, 2007; Ormonde Papers extracts; October 20th, 2007 (added Stuart Reid's analysis of Kennedy commanders at Alford and Kilsyth, including Baillie's first hand account; Oct 14th - extract from Furgol's History of the Covenanting Armies; Oct 13th - added first-hand accounts of Marston Moor; also a comparison of the Scottish and Irish 'Fasti') Original skeleton article written October 3rd, 2007 The author acknowledges the kind assistance of the Crawfords of Ardmillan, James Brown of Baltersan and Glasgow University Archives in writing this article.
Ardmillan Castle is just a caravan park now - but did Gilbert Kennedy once live here?Introduction In this article I will examine the case for the existence of a historical link from the family of the Earls of Cassillis in Ayrshire to a family of ministers in Ulster, and hence to Bucks Co. Pennsylvania. The key individual in this study has been described in sources such as the 'Irish Fasti' [S1] as Colonel Gilbert Kennedy of Ardmillan, brother to John Kennedy, 6th Earl of Cassillis. I will examine each element of this title, whether or not this gentleman fought at Marston Moor as claimed, and also discuss his parentage since this is in doubt too. The parentage of Gilbert and John Kennedy, 6th Earl of Cassillis (revised 19.10.07) Whilst researching the brother of the 6th Earl, it is impossible to overlook another problem - the dispute over whether he was the son of Gilbert, Master of Cassillis or Hew, Master of Cassillis. Rather than requote from a variety of peerages, it may be more useful to consult the family pedigrees for one good reason; in a dispute over the Earl's title in 1760 the case was taken to the House of Lords and both claimants were required to provide full proofs. In fact the dispute was not over the genealogy which both agreed upon, but on the matter of whether the title was legally required to pass only along the male line or through all heirs. The pedigrees submitted clearly show that Gilbert, the second son of Gilbert 4th Earl of Cassillis had issue, John later 6th Earl, after John, 5th Earl, eldest son of Gilbert 4th Earl died without issue. We know that there was a third brother Hew who was at one stage Master of Cassillis as reference is made to him in documents of the time [P8]. In this earlier version of the pedigree, this Hew is considered to have died without issue, and is said to have resided at Brunston Castle (outside the village of Dailly). This account is shown in the Douglas/Wood Peerage of 1813 [S14]. Somewhere along the line this account was modified and by the time of Balfor Paul's Scots Peerage in 1905 [S15] John 6th Earl was shown as the son of Hew Kennedy, Master of Cassillis. McDowall ignored this and went with the old pedigree in his hugely detailed Kennedy genealogy charts; Moss [S12], writing more recently, appears to prefer the later account. Unfortunately the key documents - the proofs of the title - don't aid this matter since John 6E was served heir to an uncle to get the title. Since his father, whoever he was, was never the Earl, there are less records to go on. Although the wills of the 4th, 6th and 7th Earls are in evidence, I have not managed to locate the will of the 5th Earl or either Gilbert or Hew, the two possible fathers of the 6th. The proofs for John, 6th Earl were 1.Retour as heir male of Earl John his uncle 21st Jan 1623 2.Retour as heir male of Earl Gilbert his grandfather 25th Jan 1623 However, a number of legal documents appear to back up the second version of the tree. Scots Peerage quotes the Register of Deeds - incorrectly vol xciv 21 Dec 1601 when vol. Xciv covers 1603 - and none of the three Calendar of Deeds volumes which actually cover 1601 (v81/2, v83 & v84 - the former is badly damaged) seem to have the described marriage contract of Hew Kennedy. In GD25 exists a document 13 Dec 1634 'Extract Registered Renunciation by John, Earl of Cassillis, to be heir, or to enter heir in general or special, to Hew, Master of Cassillis, his father'. However note an interesting footnote from the Scots Peerage ii p478 which goes to show how easy it is to go wrong here: 'in the printed RMS 6 Mar 1618 the fifth Earl is wrongly referred to as father of the sixth owing to a misprint of patris for patrui of the original record'. Just two letters difference is all it takes! Did John, 6th Earl of Cassillis, have a brother called Gilbert? This issue is resolved after consulting the archives of Glasgow University. Original manuscripts record the entry of every student since 1575, and these exist in hard copy in a series of volumes 'Munimenta Glasguensis Alme Universitatis'. Consulting this volume we find the following entry (these were recorded in manuscript in the student's own hand): 'Tertio Idus Martii 1617 Praesentibus reverendo praesule domino Archiepiscopo Glasguensi Academiae hujus Cancellario, clarissimis item viris Domino Rectore, Facultatis Decano, Ecclesiae Glasguensis Pastoribus, Scholae Publicae Moderatore, aliisque Academiae hujus membris ad Rectorem creandum solenni more congregatis, Academiae sacramentum praestiterunt adolescentes hi sequentes: 1. Gilbertus Kennedy Comitis Cassilissae frater unicus' This settles this issue immediately since in 1617 John Kennedy was 6th Earl of Cassillis, and the above tells us that he had an only brother Gilbert (at that time). The section his entry appears in is for matriculations; I am now advised by the Glasgow University archivist (4th October 2007) that he is most likely to have been between 12 and 14 years of age when matriculating. Did Gilbert Kennedy have the title Colonel and fight at Marston Moor? I have consulted several leading histories of the Civil War and Covenanting Wars, including the work by Peter Young [S16] which appears to be the most thorough. Although much is from contemporary sources, the composition of the regiments appears to have come from 'Army of the Covenant' by Terry [S8]. The key extracts are as follows: Kyle and Carrick Regiment Colonel 1644 Earl of Casillis ( John, 6th Earl d 1668) Lt-col 1644 John Kennedy Major 1644 Archibald Houston   Lt 1644 John Mitchell Hugh Crawford John Kennedy 1645 John Campbell Captain 1644 David Hume David Kennedy Walter Dunbar John Cunningham Thomas Kennedy 1646 William Wallace Ensign 1644 John Taylor, Robert Chalmers 1645 James Campbell Qtrmastrer 1644 Young Scrivener 1644 Gilbert Neilson Chaplain 1645 Patrick Colviell The regiment was engaged at Marston Moor and the sieges of York and Newcastle 1644; and also at Alford   d sept 1646  Acts vol vi part i p469  p xxiv 'according to Rushworth these officers [ie Houston in this case] already had experience of Continental warfare' Terry and Furgol [S7] also explain that all the Colonels in the Scots army were selected from the nobility. In fact Cassillis himself was one of the leading Covenanters. There is an index to all individuals at Captain or above rank and there is no Gilbert Kennedy listed. Furgol's summary is: Kyle and Carrick Foot Col: 6E Lt. Col. John Kennedy [ Fergusson quoting Aberdeen Council Letters [P2] says John Kennedy of Knockdaw] Maj. Archibald Houston ministers Alex Turnbull, Patrick Colville comissioned Aug 1643 disbanded 9 Feb 1647 The above regiment was raised for the Army of the Solemn League and Covenant; separate regiments were raised by Cassillis for the First and Second Bishops War and the later Army of the Covenant but they are outside the timeframe for Marston and Alford. However the command structure remained as Cassillis as Colonel in all four, with no Gilbert Kennedy listed. Note also that Cassillis did not raise soldiers to go to Ireland with Leslie and Munro; it was with these men that the Rev. Thomas Kennedy son of Gilbert Kennedy, our subject, was first supposed to have gone to Ireland although I have not found a reference to this in any sources described in this article. (It was also the route by which Cornet John Kennedy is supposed to have come to Ireland to found one prominent Kennedy family there, unfortunately Cornet is too low a rank to be listed in the works I have consulted). S20 is an excellent resource on the Scots Army in Ireland under Munro/Leven, but the only Kennedys mentioned in it are Cassillis and Hew Kennedy burgess of Ayr who the Scots appointed as muster master in 1642. However, just as I was about to give up I noticed Fergusson's discussion [S19]. Following up with [P2] and [P4] I found this extraordinary contemporary account: 'On the 2d July, 1645, the battle of Alford was foughten betuixt the Marquis of Montrose and General Major Baillie, when Baillie lost the battell with ane great slaughter. The most pairt of the foot was killed. Ther leader was brother to the Earle of Ca'silis, ane man of huge stature, the Lord of Balcarras being leader of the horse. On Montrose syde was killed Lord George Gordon, eldest son to the Marquis of Huntley, the Laird of Buchollie, the laird of Miltoune, of Keith, with some others of good qualitie.' The exact authorship of this account is unclear but the editors of the Grampian Club 1877 edition consider it to be contemporary. And since we earlier established that in 1617 Gilbert was the only surviving brother of John the Earl, this can only be him. Does it make him a Colonel? This is not clear, the earlier sources clearly give Cassillis as Colonel to his own regiment. It is possible Gilbert was Colonel at the battle although it seems strange no-one else has picked up on this. Not long after Alford the Covenanters were routed again at Kilsyth and sources tell that Cassillis himself had to flee to Ireland so we must assume he was leading at this last battle. My recent conclusions, as detailed in Appendix 2, are that this reference to the Earl's brother is a muddled reference to Kennedy of Knockdaw. I am not alone in this conclusion, as shown by a book by Stuart Reid 'The Campaigns of Montrose' [S21] I bought today (October 20th 2007): The Battle of Alford, p131 'With Baillie's cavalry routed, Montrose ordered his reserve forward, and the rebel main battle closed with the government centre commanded by Baillie himself and Lieutenant Colonel John Kennedy of Cassillis' regiment . … Baillie's army was substantially destroyed. The infantry suffered terribly; only 100 each of Cassillis' and Glencairn's men survived to fight at Kilsyth a month and a half later.  True Rehearsall, p61. He is mistakenly identified as Cassilis' brother, but the unknown author also picturesquely notes that he was 'ane man of huge stature''. (See my reference [P4]). This of course is not primary proof, but interestingly Reid has dug up this mention of Kennedy at Kilsyth straight from the pen of Baillie: 'The present officers whom I remember were Home, his Lieutenant Colonel and Major of the Marquess's regiment, Lieutenant Colonel Campbell, and Major Menzies, Glencairne's sergeant Major, and Cassills's Lieutenant Colonell with sundry others who behaved themselves well, and whom I saw none carefull to save themselves before the routing of the regiments'. So Baillie, recalling the fighting, can remember John Kennedy of Knokdaw alone out of the Cassillis regiment. Presumably it is due to this that leads Reid to say 'this battalion was probably commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John Kennedy of Cassillis' regiment' in his introduction to the battle. In summary, so far we have No mention of Gilbert at Marston Moor One account of him at Alford in a leading role, not confirmed by other writers and questionable as to identification Accounts of Kennedy of Knokdaw commanding at Aberdeen, Alford and Kilsyth Did Gilbert Kennedy own or live at Ardmillan Castle? I have so far found no primary source reference to a Gilbert Kennedy of Ardmillan. During the mid 1650s when the Ardmillan estates were changing hands, mostly to the Crawfords, there were Hew Kennedy of Ardmillan (spouse Margaret Crawford); Thomas Kennedy younger of Ardmillan ('his eldest son and lawful heir'); Hew Kennedy 'son of Ardmillan' or 'third son of Hugh Kennedy of Ardmillan'; These three men are recorded several times in charters etc in [P8] and [P9]. Although the name of the middle son is missing, I am advised by the Crawfords that his name was David. Nor do the Crawford private papers studied so far mention a Gilbert Kennedy. Still we have another tricky problem to deal with - what would the Earl's brother be doing at Ardmillan? Put another way, what was the connection between the houses of Ardmillan and Cassillis? Working these relationships out with original documents is a long hard task which is in progress. In the meantime we can refer to what respected Kennedy historians have made of the question in the past. Paterson [S15] says in his first edition 'we have not been fortunate enough to trace the origin of the Kennedies of Ardmillan upon documentary evidence but there is reason to believe they are of the house of Bargany'. However in an Appendix now appearing as pp248a-j he describes a land title dated 1476 from Bargany to his 'weil belovyt brother' John Kennedy in Ardmillane. McDowall [S9] is clearer in his thoughts, namely that Ardmillan was a junior branch of the house of Bargany. According to his genealogical chart, the first Kennedy of Ardmillan was John, son of the first Kennedy of Bargany, and he achieved his title as early as 1476. The source reference for this title is not given but is presumably the one of that date that the earlier Paterson referred to. If the two historians are confirmed as correct, a descendant of this line would be a somewhat distant cousin of whoever was Earl of Cassillis at the time - and only a half-cousin at that since Bargany and Cassillis descend from different matriarchs. Since we have already established above that the Ardmillan Kennedies still held their lands in the 1650s, some time after the Rev. Thomas and Gilbert Kennedy graduated from Glasgow University, and since no Gilbert Kennedy has ever been recorded at the house of Ardmillan, it seems highly unlikely that the brother of the Earl could have been 'of Ardmillan'. Moreover, this should have been apparent to anyone writing a biography of the Reverends, if they did a small amount of research into the Scottish Kennedys. Therefore I find the designation 'Gilbert Kennedy of Ardmillan, brother to the Earl of Cassillis' as not just suspect in itself, but indicative of poor research and knowledge of the Kennedys. What were the authors of the Irish Fasti thinking of? Was Gilbert Kennedy the father of Rev. Gilbert Kennedy of Girvan, later Dundonald, Co. Antrim? I have found no information on this at all so far but will be turning to this next as most of the other points are settled. Scottish v Irish Fasti Since one of the main sources linking the Tyrone Kennedys to the Cassillis family is the Irish Fasti, and since this claim did not appear in the Scottish Fasti, I will now examine both entries along with their references, as well as some background to the works. The volumes are relatively easy to view but for those unable to access them, I now reproduce the key entries. In each case I give the main biographical account; typically a minister appears several times as he moves ministry, as the works are organised by synod, presbytery and parish; the first time he appears he gets a full biography where known, and later the references simply detail when he moved to the parish in question. All entries for these individuals have been studied. Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae The Scottish volumes start from the Reformation. The version most often seen is the 'New Edition' printed in 1915. The original work by Hew Scott (1791-1872) came out in 1866 and I have not viewed it yet. A subsequent volume 'Fasti Ecclesiae Scotticanae Medii Aevi Ad Annum 1638' [S2a] covers pre-Reformation Scotland. The sub-editor of the New Edition was the Lyon Clerk, and the editorial committee included Lord Lyon King of Arms himself, Sir James Balfour Paul, who had also authored the Scots Peerage [S14]. This means that Scotland's foremost genealogist oversaw two works, one of which states that the noble Gilbert Kennedy disappears from records without trace, the other describing a Gilbert Kennedy minister in Girvan, ancestry unknown. FES Vol. 3 (Synods of Glasgow and Ayr), New Edition, Hew Scott, 1915 'Rev. Gilbert Kennedy 1651 Girvan, of old Invergarvan brother of Thomas Kennedy minister of Donoughmore or Carlan, Co. Tyrone MA Glasgow 1647 adm. 26 Nov 1651 deprived by act of Parliament 11th Jun decree Privy Council 1 Oct 1662 in 1679 accused of keeping conventicles and afterwards went to Ireland and had charge of congregation at Dundonald. d 6 Feb 1688 at age 61 he married a lady whose name is not recorded and had issue Gilbert minister of Donaclony d 8 Jul 1745 Refs: Wodrows History i 327 [see my reference S6] Linlithgow Presb Reg. Reid's Ireland ii 401 [see my reference S5] GR Hornings 29th Jan 1653' FES Vol. 7 formerly minister of Girvan (cf vol 3) minister at Dundonald Ireland 1673; died 6 Feb 1688. His daughter Catherine married 15 May 1702 William Tennent minister at Neshaminy, Penn. USA and founder of the famous Log College and Father of Presbyterian Colleges in American; she died 7 May 1753 aged 70' Note that the authors have helpfully listed no less than four references for Gilbert's entry. Of these I have identified and studied two as indicated above. However I am slightly less interested in the sources for the Scottish Fasti since it is not they who are making the claim we are investigating; what we are trying to identify is why the authors of the Irish equivalent enhanced the biography. FES vol. 2 p342: Rev. Thomas Kennedy MA Glasg 1643 Licen. presb Stranraer 3 Dec 1651 ad bef Dec 28 1654; deprived act Parl 11 Jun dec priv co 1 Oct 1662 not immed obeying he was ordered 24 feb 1663 to leave within a month . he went to Ireland and had charge of a congregation at newtonards refs: Wodrows Hist i 327; Reids Ireland ii; Bannatyne Miscl ii FES vol. 3 MA Glasgow 1643 ord. to a Presbyterian congregation at Donoughmore or Dungannon, Ireland, before 1661; was present at Presb of Glasgow 10 Jun 1689; called 3rd July 1689 [to St Mungos Presb of Glasgow] officiating in either Inner High or Tron Church. He returned to Ireland in 1693 and was settled at Carlan. FES vol. 7 p 531 min. at Lewwalt in 1654; deprived in 1662 and went to Ireland; min at Carland Co Tyrone about 1662, and of Newtonards before 1671; fled to Scotland at the Revolution; returned to Carland in 1693; died 9 Feb 1716 aged 89 see Latimer's Hist of Irish Presbyterians, 134, 292 Fasti of the Irish Presbyterian Church 1613-1840 Rev James McConnell BA revised by his son Rev. Samuel G McConnell BA Presbyterian Historical Society, Church House Belfast The printed edition was published in 1951 but much of it had already been published in a series in a magazine - the section dealing with Thomas Kenndy was first published in 1937. #171 p70 'Gilbert Kennedy 2nd s. of Col. Gilbert Kennedy, Ardmillan, Ayrshire and nephew of John, 6th Earl of C. bro. of rev. Thos. K, Carland; b 1627; educ. Glasgow MA (Glas) 1647; ord. Girvan 26 nov 1651; mar. Miss Mongtomery, gt. grand-dau. of 6th Earl and 1st Marquis of Huntly; deposed for non-conformity, 1662; came to Ireland cic. 1668; ins. Dundonald and Holywood, 1670; accused of keeping conventicles at Girvan 1679, with Rev. John Welsh, Irongray, who stated that the present Solemnity was appointed to restore Mr. Kennedy, the Non-Conformist to his cure at Girvan. Died 6 feb 1688; int. at Dundonald Rev. Gilbert K MA Tullylish was a son, and the Rev. Wm Tennant, Neshaniny (1726-) was a son-in-law; having mr. his dau. Catherine. refs. Scott's Fasti, iii,41,vii 531; Christian Unitarian 1866 p359n; Reid ii 318n; Ormonde Papers iv 69' Again we have four helpful references. One is Reid again and one, intriguingly, is Scott's Scottish Fasti! So we can safely eliminate them from our enquiries as I have already examined them. Update November 22nd, 2007. I have finally got around to consulting the 'Ormonde Papers' with a bit of help from the staff of the National Library of Ireland to clarify exactly what this referred to, then a consultation in the Manuscripts room at the National Library of Scotland (and not, note, upstairs which is where the shelfmark predicted them to be - they've been moved and not all the staff realise this!). The full title of the reference is 'Calendar of the manuscripts of the Marquess of Ormonde ... preserved at Kilkenny Castle' by the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, published by Eyre and Spottiswoode for HM Stationery Office 1895-1920. Both Thomas and Gilbert Kennedy are mentioned. The reference to Gilbert Kennedy is in volume iv p69 as indicated in the Irish Fasti and can be read here. So our third Irish Fasti reference joins the other two in not giving any proof of a connection to the Cassillis family. #81 Thomas Kennedy eld. s. of Col. Gilbert Kennedy, Ardmillan, Ayrshire, and neph. of John, 6th Earl of Cassillis; bro. of Rev. Gilbert Kennedy, Dundonald b 1625; educ. Glas 1637 MA 1643 inst. Donaghmore (Carland) Co. Tyrone 1646; dep. for non-conformity, 1661; continued to preach in a log house and was imprisoned for doing so for some years; mar. dau. of Capt. O'Brien of Bawn; officiated in Glasgow 1689-93; ret. to Carland and built church; Modr. of G.S 1696; died 9 Feb 1716 aged 89. Rev. John Kennedy, Benburb (1714061) and Rev. Thomas Kennedy, Ballyclug (1700-46), were sons, and Rev. And. Turner, Erskine (1692-1704) a son-in-law. reff. Leslie, p230; Stewart, MS Hist. of Carland; Patterson, Hist of Ayr ii 281; Scott, Fasti, ii 343; iii 454 Yet another four references. Patterson (Paterson) is a well known and respected historian of Ayrshire and the Kennedys and I have his works at home. He certainly draws no such links between Tyrone and Cassillis. The Stewart MS about Carland is at the Linen Hall Library in Belfast and I have examined it. It doesn't make the claim either, although stuck in the back are some newspaper articles from the 300th anniversary of Carland congregation where the journalists do. According to my notes I determined that 'Leslie' refers to a work called 'Armagh : Loyalty of Presbyterians' but I haven't managed to locate such a work yet. Note further that the above Thomas Kennedy also appears in a lengthy note in the Corrigenda and Addenda in the front of the book. Referenced is another work by Leslie [?] making me wonder if the earlier Leslie reference is wrong. It was obtained by working backwards through the entries to the first biographical note that mentioned the author so I assume it was the intended one. The corrigenda note isn't particularly relevant but for completeness here it is: '#81 Leslie's Armagh clergy list states that Thomas Kennedy was Commonwealth minister of the parish of Donoughmore in 1646; he gives Commonwealth Papers as his authority. But CharlesI was alive till 1649 and the Common. W. was subsequent to his execution; a tablet in Carland Pres. Ch. also gives 1646 as the date of Mr. Kennedy's settlement. The following quotation from the Commonwealth Papers very probably refers to this minister as there is no other Kennedy mentioned in the list of commonwealth ministers save Rev. Anthony Kennedy who was long settled in Templepatrick. "considering the petition of the inhabitants of Loughgall, Co. Armagh, for Mr Kennedy and a report from the Committee for settling the maintenance of ministers, from which it appears that Humphrey Pettard (having bee appointed by the committee for approbation of ministers) was appointed to preach there. The council stated Pettard should remain where he is and that Kennedy (on the approbation of the committee) should be settled elsewhere" ref A/15 f/.70 31 Dec 1658' Appendix 1. Peter Young: first-hand accounts of Marston Moor In section four of his book, Young reproduces many first hand accounts of the battle of Marston Moor in full - accounts from Royalists, Parliamentarians and Scots. Of these only one mentions Cassillis, not surprisingly it is the account of Sir James Lumsden, in overall command of the Scots infantry including the Kyle and Carrick (Cassillis) regiment. He made a major contribution to our knowledge of the battle by sketching a battleground layout of both forces, and a letter of his survives describing the battle. Here is a short extract of interest: Letter from Maj-Gen Sir James Lumsden to Lord Loudoun '... They that faucht stood extraordinarie weill to it; whereof my Lord Lyndsay, his brigad commandit by himself, was one. These brigads that failyied on the vanne wer presently supplied by Cassilis, Kilheid, Cowper, Dumfermling and some of Cliddisdaills regiment who wer on the battel, and gained what they had lost, and maid themselffs masters of the cannon was nixt to them, and tooke Sir Charles Lucas, Leivetenant Generall of their horss, prisoner. ... Livetennant Generall Baillie commandit the vanne of ours under him and Fairfax and Manchesters of their own.' That second sentence is of somewhat clumsy construction - here is Young's paraphrased version from earlier in the book: 'that is to say, Lumsden deployed most of the two centre brigades of the second line to fill the gap torn by Blakiston.' Appendix 2. Extract from Furgol's 'Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies' [S7], pp152-3 Furgol's references appear at the end. I have marked two parts in bold as of particular interest, although I haven't tracked back to the original sources to verify it yet. Kyle and Carrick Foot For command structure, see earlier. . The earl of Cassillis was commissioned the colonel of the central and southern Ayrshire forces in August 1643. This area raised ten companies which were at Dalkeith on 14 January 1644. The Kyle and Carrick entered England as part of Leven's army five days later. In early 1644 it heavily burdened Henry Hinde of The Stelling, Bywell Peter, Northumberland. The regiment took thirty-one cattle worth £46 10s, sixty sheep worth £15, five swine costing £1 5s, forty foother of hay valued at £20, three horses at £6, a bible worth 13s and other goods amounting in total to £215 5s. Major Houston received £3 8s in cess and billeting. The Kyle and Carrick Foot served with Leven up to the siege of York and Marston Moor. At the latter it was one of the three second-line Scottish infantry regiments which held its ground. The regiment was brigaded with the Nithsdale foot with which it cleared the royalist foot placed in a ditch in front of the allied line. After Marston Moor and the fall of York the Kyle and Carrick returned to the Newcastle vicinity to take part in the siege. On 24 August the garrison made a successful sortie against the portion of the siege-works held by this unit and the Nithsdale Foot. The royalists forced the Scots to flee, because the Covenanting officers were absent. The regiment went to Scotland shortly thereafter to serve under Lt. General Baillie. It stayed in Aberdeen for ten days in September, when there were 700 men in the unit. On 19 October the Kyle and Carrick Foot formed part of the 3rd Brigade, whose target was the Pilgrim Street Gate-Cariol Tower area. Cassillis personally led about seven companies of the regiment in the storming operation. Although the Kyle and Carrick probably spent some of the winter 1644-45 in England, it returned to Scotland before the spring arrived . From spring 1645 until it disbanded this regiment served as part of the home army. In late March Cassillis and his men were with Baillie near Brechin. On 2 and 3 April the 800 men of the regiment quartered in Perth. A party of 160 commanded men returned to the burgh on the 4th. They may have taken part in the pursuit of Montrose from Dundee on 5 April. From 14 June (Saturday) in the evening to the 18th at 2pm Lieutenant-Colonel Kennedy* was in command of 700 men of the Kyle and Carrick in Aberdeen. They cost the burgh £560. Before then the regiment probably formed part of Baillie's army. The Kyle and Carrick was certainly with Baillie after the 18th, if it had not been beforehand. On 2 July the regiment was badly mauled at Alford. The officers later joined in a petition with those of other regiments for replacement of baggage, clothing and necessities lost at battle. On 1 August the Estates decided to recruit the regiment back to full strength. Wigtonshire and the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright received orders to levy 600 foot; Ayrshire and Renfrewshire were assessed 200 foot. Due to Montrose's victory at Kilsyth two weeks later, it is doubtful that any of these reinforcements reached the regiment. The whereabouts of th regiment for six months is not known. However, in November 1645 it was assigned several hundred recruits from Galloway. In February 1646 it was serving under Middleton in the northeast. Some men took grain worth 23s. from a tenant in Turriff. It may be assumed that the Kyle and Carrick served under Middleton in his campaigns against Montrose. The regiment is found quartered in Glasgow on 18 December. Due to the plague, on 14 January 1647 the Estates ordered the regiment to be quartered in barns and outbuildings of Glasgow. It was to muster its men every ten days and not to lift cess or live on free quarter but on the money provided. On 4 February the unsatisfactory state of these arrangements comes to light through a petition of the regimental officers for £2000 owed them by the burgh of Glasgow (this was paid on 20 February). On the 5th the Estates ordered the regiment to disband on 9 February. That day all, save fifty foot which were retained for the General of the Artillery's Foot in the New Model Army, were disbanded . *as discussed earlier, this is believed to be Kennedy of Knockdaw. It is very interesting that Furgol places Lieutenant-Colonel John Kennedy of Knockdaw in charge of a large company of Foot at Aberdeen just a fortnight before the source discussed earlier claims the Earl's brother was leading the Foot at Alford, particularly since Aberdeen and Alford are a significant journey away from the homes of the gentlemen concerned. Is it possible these two men were one and the same and gave rise to the legend of 'Colonel Kennedy'? Let us recap something else Furgol tells his readers about how the upper commands were filled: 'The backbone of all these armies was the foot or infantry regiment. These units were commanded by a Colonel who had a Lieutenant-Colonel, Major etc under him. Each company had a Captain (the Colonel's company a Lt-Captain). In the Army of the Solemn League and Covenant nobles continued to dominate as Colonels but some were replaced by professionals. The Tables ruled that Lt-Cols and Majors be professional soldiers.' Furgol reference list 102. Army of the Covenant, i 179. Fasti, ii 340 103. This regiment may have fought at Hilton. SRO, PA 11.2, 9v; Army of the Covenant, i xxxiii; Ibid., ii 595; 'Hinde Papers', 132-3; List of Regiments; Stewart, Full Relation, 5; Terry, Leslie, 246,299,326; Young, Marston Moor, map between 144-5. 104. SRO,PA 11.4,158, 161v; PA 16.4,7; Aberdeen Letters, iii 23,45,87; APS, VI,i 449,469,634,655,681,686; Chronicle of Perth, 41-2; Glasgow, 113, 512; Cowan, Montrose, 195 Appendix 3. Peter Young bibliography for Marston Moor Young's work gives the impression of total thoroughness - as indicated by Rogers in the introduction to his 'Battles and Generals of the Civil War' [S17] when he says: 'nobody can write a book on the English civil war without acknowledging the debt he owes to Brig. Peter Young for the painstaking research which he has devoted to it over so many years.' Since I can't promise to follow up all Young's references, other than the aforementioned accounts he reproduces in the book itself, I am including his bibliography here in case anyone else is enthused enough to take up the trail. George, first Duke of Albermarle: Observations upon military and political affairs 1671 A list of officers claiming to the sixty thousand pounds &c granted by his sacred Majesty for the relief of his truly loyal and indigent party 1663 Allied Generals Dispatch, 5th July Simeon Ashe: A true relation of the late fight between the Parliamentary Forces and Prince Rupert Colonel Joseph Blamfield: Apologie, The Hague, 1685 William Barriffe: Militarie Discipline: or the young artillery-man, 3rd edition, 1643 Thomas Blount: The art of making devises, 1650 Lt. Col. A. Burne and Lt. Col. Peter Young: The great civil war, a military history of the first civil war 1642-1646 (1959) CAM: Calendar of the proceedings of the Committee for the advance of money, 1642-1656 CCC: Callendar of the proceedings of the Committee for compounding &c, 1643-1660 CSPD: Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1644 Earl of Clarendon: The History of the rebellion and civil wars in England, Oxford, 1888 Captain Robert Clarke: letter to Captain Bartlett John Cruso: Militarie Instructions for the Cavallerie, Cambridge, 1632 Charles Dalton: English army lists and commission registers, 1661-1714, vol. I Godfrey Davies: The army of the Eastern Association, 1644-5 (1931) Sir Bernard de Gomme: Ordre of his Maj'tie Armee of ii000 foot, and 6500 horse... British Museum Add MS 16370 f. 64 Sir William Dugdale: The life, diary [1643-86] and correspondence [1635-86] of Sir William Dugdale, Knight William Eldred: The Gunner's Glasse, 1646 Lord Fairfax: A short memoriall of the Northern actions [1642-50] Colonel Sir William Fairfax: letter Sir Charles Firth: Cromwell's Army, 3rd ed. 1921 C.H. Firth: The journal of Prince Rupert's marches 5 Sep 1642-4 Jul 1646 C.H. Firth: Marston Moor. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society vol xii, 1898. Sir Charles Firth and Godfrey Davies: The regimental history of Cromwell's army, 1940 G. K. Fortescue: Catalogue of the pamphlets relating to the civil war, 1640-1661 Thomas Fuller: The history of the Worthies of England 1662 Samuel Rawson Gardiner: History of the Great Civil War, 1642-9 Robert Grifen: Letter Captain 'W.H.' : Letter. Unidentified but fought in the cavalry Denzil Lord Holles: Memoirs 1641-8 Lord Hopton: Bellum Civile, Somerset Record Society 1902 King James II: Life of James II collected out of memoirs writ of his own hand Alex. D.H. Leadman: Battles fought in Yorkshire, 1891 Edmund Ludlow: Memoirs of Edmund Ludlow, ed. C.H. Firth Sergeant-Major-General Sir James Lumsden: Plan of the allied armies at Marston Moor [now in library of York minster] Lumdsen: Letter to Lord Loudon Gervase Markham: The Souldier's Grammar, 1626 Mercurius Civicus (11-18 April 1644) Robert Monro: His expedition with the worthy Scots regiment levied in August 1626 Duchess of Newcastle: The life of William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, ed Firth 1886 Mr Ogden: narrative Edward Peacock: The army lists of the Roundheads and Cavaliers, containing the names of the officers in the two armies Prince Rupert: Diary Henry Shelley, MP: Account Colonel Sir Henry Slingsby: The diary of extracts printed in the autobiography of Captain John Hodgson Colonel James Somerville: account Captain William Stewart: a full relation of the victory at Marstam Moor. Thomas Scockdale: letter C.S. Terry: Papers relating to the army of the Solemn League and Covenant, 1643-47 C.S. Terry: The Scottish campaign in Northumberland and Durham, Archaeologia Aeliana, 1899 The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer (14-17 May 1644) Arthur Trevor: Letter to the Marquess of Ormonde. Sir James Turner: Memoirs of his own life and time [1632-72] John Vicars: England's parliamentarie chronicle, 1643-6 Eliot Warburton: Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers Robert Ward: Animadversions of Warre 1639 J. Washbourne: Bibliotheca Gloucestrnesis: tracts relating to the county and city of Gloucester during the Civil War Brig. Peter Young: Oliver Cromwell and his times, 1962 Brig. Peter Young: Edgehill 1642 (1967) (end of Young's bibliography) References Primary P1. Munimenta Alme Universitatis Glasguensis 1575-1740 P2. Aberdeen Council letters 1645-1660 P3. Reports of Claims preferred to the House of Lords in the cases of the Cassillis, Sutherland, Spynie and Glencairn peerages, 1760-4 P4 St. Anthonys Chapel Scottish Events 1635-45, Rev. Charles Rogers P5 Wodrow's Analecta (entries for the year 1721) P6 Diary of Rev. John Kennedy of Benburb 1714-1737, held at Presbyterian Historical Society library Belfast P7 GD25 Ailsa Muniments, National Archives of Scotland P8 Register of the Privy Council P9 Register of the Great Seal P10 Inquisitionum Ad Capellam Domini Regis Retornatum Abbreviatio 1544-1699 (Retours of Services of Heirs) Secondary S1 Fasti of the Irish Presbyterian Church, Rev. Jas. McConnell BA revised by his son Rev. Samuel G. McConnell BA S2 Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae, Hew Scott S2a Fasti Ecclesiae Scotticanae Medii Aevi Ad Annum 1638, ed. Donald Watt S3 History of the Presbyterian congregation of Carland, Stewart Carse (tr. Samuel Stewart) S4 Observations on 'History of the congregation of Carland', A.G. Sloan S5 History of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, James Seaton Reid S6 History of the sufferings of the Church of Scotland, Robert Wodrow S7 Regimental History of the Covenanting Armies 1639-1651, Edward Furgol S8 Papers relating to the army of the Solemn League and Covenant 1643-1647, ed. Charles Sandord Terry S9 Carrick Gallovidian, Kevan McDowall S10 The Magnificent castle of Culzean and the Kennedy family, Michael Moss S11. Kansas: a cyclopedia of state history, embracing events, institutions, industries, counties, cities, towns, prominent persons, etc. ... / with a supplementary volume devoted to selected personal history and reminiscence. Standard Pub. Co. Chicago : 1912. 3 v. in 4. : front., ill., ports.; 28 cm. Vols. I-II edited by Frank W. Blackmar. S12 'Ancestors of Brian Wilson' family tree, worldconnect project, http://wc.rootsweb.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=:509724&id=I22671555 This tree and others like it, directly connects the Kennedys of Bucks Co. Pennsylvania with the Earl of Cassillis S13 Peerage of Scotland, Sir Robert Douglas rev. John Philip Wood, 1813 S14 Scots Peerage, Sir James Balfor Paul, 1904 S15 History of the County of Ayr, Paterson S 16 Marston Moor 1644 the campaign and the battle, Brig. Peter Young S 17 Battles and Generals of the Civil Wars, Col. HCB Rogers OBE S 18 Civil War, Trevor Royle FRSEd S 19 The Kennedys, Sir James Fergusson of Kilkerran S20 Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates; Scottish-Irish relations in the mid-seventeenth century, David Stevenson S21 The Campaigns of Montrose. A military history of the Civil War in Scotland 1639-1646. Stuart Reid.